The liturgical vestments that are worn at Catholic Church Mass have evolved over a long period. Nonetheless, since the early days of the Catholic Church, priests have worn liturgical vestments to celebrate the Mass. The Old Testament priests wore vestments during the performance of liturgical rites. It should be noted that the Christian vestments were a development of the dress of the Graeco-Roman world and this is inclusive of the religious culture. The idea that the Old Testament had of putting on a particular kind of clothing during the performance of liturgical rites significantly influenced the church.
After Christianity had been legalized in A.D. 313, the Catholic Church proceeded to refine exactly who wore what, when they would wear it, and how. This process continued until the year 800 when all liturgical norms for vesting became standardized. The situation would remain the same until the renewal succeeding the Second Vatican Council.
Currently, a Catholic priest wears a chasuble, stole, cincture, alb, and amice during the celebration of Mass. The utilization of the maniple became suppressed in 1969 following the promulgation of the new Roman Missal.
The alb is a long linen gown that is worn by priests. It only means the white garment. The alb is a survival of the white Roman toga. The white color shows the necessity of purity of both the body and soul, in the person who gives an offering of the Lamb of God to the Father.
The cincture is the girdle worn around the waist to bind the alb very close to the body. It is usually white and is made of wool or braided linen.
The stole is a long narrow vestment worn by the priest around the neck. It has ends which hang down in front. The stole came into use around the 4th century. Originally, it was a kind of cloak or robe but was gradually modified to become a narrow strip.
The chasuble is a long vestment that is usually worn by the priest at Mass. It is worn on the shoulders and hangs down behind and in front. Its rear portion often has an ornamental cross or some other appropriate symbol.
The amice is a liturgical vestment that is a piece of white linen, it is characterized by two long cloth ribbons and is rectangular. It was originally used as a head covering by Roman soldiers underneath their helmets to absorb sweat to prevent it from flowing into their eyes. Its spiritual purpose is to act as a reminder of the St. Paul’s admonition.
The above information about the history of liturgical vestments in the Catholic Church is not exhaustive but just an overview.
Uses of vestments at other Masses
There are various Masses that priests may also use garments such as the surplice, the humeral veil, and the cope. Each has its symbolic meaning and history.
The humeral veil was usually worn by a priest at the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament on the shoulders. During the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, the priest held the Sacred Host for the blessing of the people. The humeral veil is also worn when the priest carries the Blessed Sacrament in procession.
The surplice is a vestment that was worn on top of the cassock when the Sacraments were being administered as well as at numerous services of the Church.
The cope was originally worn during outdoor processions. It was considered a rain-cloak, indicated by the name Pluvial (its Latin name) which means “protection against rain.”
The history of liturgical vestments in the Catholic Church is quite rich and educational as it explains their historical significance and symbolic meaning. All in all, the liturgical vestments that priests wear for the Catholic Mass have two primary purposes i.e. they symbolize each ministry’s function and also contribute to the beauty of the rite.
Here is a short video, and a good explanation on the Vestments in the Catholic Church